The People's Republic of China
In Beijing, on October 1, 1949, Mao
Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China. The new government
assumed control of a people exhausted by two generations of war and social conflict, and
an economy ravaged by high inflation and disrupted transportation links. A new political
and economic order modeled on the Soviet example was quickly installed.
In the early 1950s, China undertook a massive economic and social
reconstruction. The new leaders gained popular support by curbing inflation, restoring the
economy, and rebuilding many war-damaged industrial plants. The CCP's authority reached
into almost every phase of Chinese life. Party control was assured by large, politically
loyal security and military forces; a government apparatus responsive to party direction;
and ranks of party members in labor, women's, and other mass organizations.
The "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino-Soviet Split
In 1958, Mao broke with the Soviet model and announced a new economic
program, the "Great Leap Forward," aimed at rapidly raising industrial and
agricultural production. Giant cooperatives (communes) were formed, and "backyard
factories" dotted the Chinese landscape. The results were disastrous. Normal market
mechanisms were disrupted, agricultural production fell behind, and China's people
exhausted themselves producing what turned out to be shoddy, unsalable goods. Within a
year, starvation appeared even in fertile agricultural areas. From 1960 to 1961, the
combination of poor planning during the Great Leap Forward and bad weather resulted in
The already strained Sino-Soviet relationship deteriorated sharply in
1959, when the Soviets started to restrict the flow of scientific and technological
information to China. The dispute escalated, and the Soviets withdrew all of their
personnel from China in August 1960. In 1960, the Soviets and the Chinese began to have
disputes openly in international forums.
The Cultural Revolution
In the early 1960s, State President Liu Shaoqi and his
General Secretary Deng Xiaoping, took over direction of the party and adopted pragmatic
economic policies at odds with Mao's revolutionary vision. Dissatisfied with China's new
direction and his own reduced authority, Party Chairman Mao launched a massive political
attack on Liu, Deng, and other pragmatists in the spring of 1966. The new movement, the
"Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution," was unprecedented in Communist history.
For the first time, a section of the Chinese Communist leadership sought to rally popular
opposition against another leadership group. China was set on a course of political and
social anarchy which lasted the better part of a decade.
In the early stages of the Cultural Revolution, Mao and his
"closest comrade in arms," National Defense Minister Lin Biao, charged Liu,
Deng, and other top party leaders with dragging China back toward capitalism. Radical
youth organizations, called Red Guards, attacked party and state organizations at all
levels, seeking out leaders who would not bend to the radical wind. In reaction to this
turmoil, some local People's Liberation Army (PLA) commanders and other officials
maneuvered to outwardly back Mao and the radicals while actually taking steps to rein in
local radical activity.
Gradually, Red Guard and other radical activity subsided, and the
Chinese political situation stabilized along complex factional lines. The leadership
conflict came to a head in September 1971, when Party Vice Chairman and Defense Minister
Lin Biao reportedly tried to stage a coup against Mao; Lin Biao allegedly later died in a
plane crash in Mongolia.
In the aftermath of the Lin Biao incident, many officials criticized and
dismissed during 1966-69 were reinstated. Chief among these was Deng
reemerged in 1973 and was confirmed in 1975 in the concurrent posts of Politburo Standing
Committee member, PLA Chief of Staff, and Vice Premier.
The ideological struggle between more pragmatic, veteran party officials
and the radicals re-emerged with a vengeance in late 1975. Mao's wife, Jiang
three close Cultural Revolution associates (later dubbed the "Gang of Four")
launched a media campaign against Deng. In January of 1976, Premier Zhou
Enlai, a popular
political figure, died of cancer. On April 5, Beijing citizens staged a spontaneous
demonstration in Tiananmen Square in Zhou's memory, with strong political overtones in
support of Deng. The authorities forcibly suppressed the demonstration. Deng was blamed
for the disorder and stripped of all official positions, although he retained his party
The Post-Mao Era
Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese
politics and set off a scramble for succession. Former Minister of Pubic Security Hua
Guofeng was quickly confirmed as Party Chairman and Premier. A month after Mao's death,
Hua, backed by the PLA, arrested Jiang Qing and other members of the "Gang of
Four." After extensive deliberations, the Chinese Communist Party leadership
reinstated Deng Xiaoping to all of his previous posts at the 11th Party Congress in August
1977. Deng then led the effort to place government control in the hands of veteran party
officials opposed to the radical excesses of the previous two decades.
The new, pragmatic leadership emphasized economic development and
renounced mass political movements. At the pivotal December 1978 Third Plenum (of the 11th
Party Congress Central Committee), the leadership adopted economic reform policies aimed
at expanding rural income and incentives, encouraging experiments in enterprise autonomy,
reducing central planning, and establishing direct foreign investment in China. The plenum
also decided to accelerate the pace of legal reform, culminating in the passage of several
new legal codes by the National People's Congress in June 1979.
After 1979, the Chinese leadership moved toward more pragmatic positions
in almost all fields. The party encouraged artists, writers, and journalists to adopt more
critical approaches, although open attacks on party authority were not permitted. In late
1980, Mao's Cultural Revolution was officially proclaimed a catastrophe. Hua
protege of Mao, was replaced as Premier in 1980 by reformist Sichuan party chief Zhao
Ziyang and as party General Secretary in 1981 by the even more reformist Communist Youth
League chairman Hu Yaobang.
Reform policies brought great improvements in the standard of living,
especially for urban workers and for farmers who took advantage of opportunities to
diversify crops and establish village industries. Literature and the arts blossomed, and
Chinese intellectuals established extensive links with scholars in other countries.
At the same time, however, political dissent as well as social problems
such as inflation, urban migration, and prostitution emerged. Although students and
intellectuals urged greater reforms, some party elders increasingly questioned the pace
and the ultimate goals of the reform program. In December of 1986, student demonstrators,
taking advantage of the loosening political atmosphere, staged protests against the slow
pace of reform, confirming party elders' fear that the current reform program was leading
to social instability. Hu Yaobang, a protege of Deng and a leading advocate of reform, was
blamed for the protests and forced to resign as CCP General Secretary in January 1987.
Premier Zhao Ziyang was made General Secretary and Li Peng, former Vice Premier and
Minister of Electric Power and Water Conservancy, was made Premier.
1989 Student Movement and Tiananmen Square
After Zhao became the party General Secretary, the economic and
political reforms he had championed came under increasing attack. His proposal in May 1988
to accelerate price reform led to widespread popular complaints about rampant inflation
and gave opponents of rapid reform the opening to call for greater centralization of
economic controls and stricter prohibitions against Western influence. This precipitated a
political debate, which grew more heated through the winter of 1988-89.
The death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, coupled with growing economic
hardship caused by high inflation, provided the backdrop for a large-scale protest
movement by students, intellectuals, and other parts of a disaffected urban population.
University students and other citizens in Beijing camped out at Tiananmen Square to mourn
Hu's death and to protest against those who would slow reform. Their protests, which grew
despite government efforts to contain them, called for an end to official corruption and
for defense of freedoms guaranteed by the Chinese Constitution. Protests also spread
through many other cities, including Shanghai and Guangzhou.
Martial law was declared on May 20, 1989. Late on July 3 and early on
the morning of June 4, military units were brought into Beijing. They used armed force to
clear demonstrators from the streets.
After June 4, the central government eliminated remaining sources of
organized opposition, detained large numbers of protesters, and required political
reeducation not only for students but also for large numbers of party cadre and government
Following the resurgence of conservatives in the aftermath of June 4,
economic reform slowed until given new impetus by Deng Xiaoping's dramatic visit to
southern China in early 1992. Deng's renewed push for a market-oriented economy received
official sanction at the 14th Party Congress later in the year as a number of younger,
reform-minded leaders began their rise to top positions. Deng and his supporters argued
that managing the economy in a way that increased living standards should be China's
primary policy objective, even if "capitalist" measures were adopted. Subsequent
to the visit, the Communist Party Politburo publicly issued an endorsement of Deng's
policies of economic openness. Though not completely eschewing political reform, China has
consistently placed overwhelming priority on the opening of its economy.
Third Generation of Leaders
Deng's health deteriorated in the years prior to his death in 1997.
During that time, President Jiang Zemin and other members of his generation gradually
assumed control of the day-to-day functions of government. This "third
generation" leadership governs collectively with President Jiang at the center.
In March 1998, Jiang was re-elected President during the 9th National
People's Congress. Premier Li Peng was constitutionally required to step down from that
post. He was elected to the chairmanship of the National People's Congress. Zhu Rongji was
selected to replace Li as Premier.
China is firmly committed to economic reform and opening to the outside
world. The Chinese leadership has identified reform of state industries as a government
priority. Government strategies for achieving that goal include large-scale privatization
of unprofitable state-owned enterprises. The leadership has also downsized the government
The government's efforts to promote rule of law are significant and
ongoing. After the Cultural Revolution, China's leaders aimed to develop a legal system to
restrain abuses of official authority and revolutionary excesses. In 1982, the National
People's Congress adopted a new state constitution that emphasized the rule of law under
which even party leaders are theoretically held accountable.
Since 1979, when the drive to establish a functioning legal system
began, more than 300 laws and regulations, most of them in the economic area, have been
promulgated. The use of mediation committees--informed groups of citizens who resolve
about 90% of China's civil disputes and some minor criminal cases at no cost to the
parties--is one innovative device. There are more than 800,000 such committees in both
rural and urban areas.
Legal reform became a government priority in the 1990s. Legislation
designed to modernize and professionalize the nation's lawyers, judges, and prisons was
enacted. The 1994 Administrative Procedure Law allows citizens to sue officials for abuse
of authority or malfeasance. In addition, the criminal law and the criminal procedures
laws were amended to introduce significant reforms. The criminal law amendments abolished
the crime of "counter-revolutionary" activity, while criminal procedures reforms
encouraged establishment of a more transparent, adversarial trial process. The Chinese
Constitution and laws provide for fundamental human rights, including due
China has acknowledged in principle the importance of
protection of human rights and has taken steps to bring
its human rights practices into conformity with
international norms. Among these steps are signature in
October 1997 of the International Covenant on Economic,
Social, and Cultural Rights and signature in October
1998 of the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights. China has also expanded dialogue with
foreign governments. These positive steps not
withstanding, serious problems remain.